Preface and General Information
Qosqo in History
The Tawantinsuyo
The Inka
Inkan Religion
General and City Planning
Materials and Lithic Technology
Inkan Architecture
Coca Leaves
Andean Camelids
Andean Condor
Inkan City of Qosqo
Present-day Festivities
The Cathedral
Saint Blaise Church
Convent of Our Lady of Mercy
La Compania de Jesus Church
Saint Francis Convent
Monastery of Saint Catherine
Maras, Moray, Pichingoto
Tipon, Pikillaqta, Andahuaylillas
Inka Trail
Manu National Reserve


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Acamama or Aqha-mama: ancient name of the city, prior to "Qosqo".

Alpaca or Paqocha (Vicugna pacos): domesticated South-American cameloid very appreciated for its wool and meat.

Altomisayoq: "whom says the high mass" : Andean Religion priest.

Ama Sua, Ama Llulla, Ama Kella: "Do not be a thief, liar, neither lazy"; three rules ascribed to the Inkan Society.

Andesite: dark granite, very common in the Andes.

Antisuyo: one of the four Tawantinsuyo's nations, identified in the jungle, toward Qosqo's east.

Apacheta: pile of divers elements left by travelers on the highest passes as offerings.

Apu: superior spirit or deity.

Auki: minor spirit or deity.

Ceque or Seque: imaginary line with a succession of temples.

Ch'arki: Jerk (Jerky), dehydrated meat (salty dried).

Ch'aska: Venus Star.

Chaski: relay runner in charge of taking messages.

Chicha: Spanish word naming the "Aqha" of Inkan Society; that is, fermented maize beer.

Chinchaysuyo: the Tawantinsuyo's northern nation.

Chinkana: "Where one may get lost", underground tunnel.

Ch'uño: dehydrated potato.

Contisuyo: Tawantinsuyo's nation located toward the west of the city, toward the coast.

Collasuyo: Tawantinsuyo's nation located toward the south of Qosqo, in the Peruvian Altiplano (high plateau).

Cuy, Cuye or Qowi: (Cavia porcellus) guinea pig or cavy, when roasted is the most symbolic main dish in the region.

Guanaco or Wanaku: (Lama guanicoe) non domesticated reddish South-American cameloid looking like a llama.

Hanan Pacha: World's level according to Andean Religion located in the sky or sidereal space.

Hanan or Hawan Qosqo: higher or upper Qosqo.

Haukaypata: "Ceremonial Square", it is argued that it was the original name of the Main Plaza.

Illapa: Andean God compound by thunder, lightning and thunderbolt.

Inka: Tawantinsuyo's king, monarch, or sovereign.

Inti or P'unchau: Sun God.

Inti Raymi: "Sun Festivity", the most important celebration in Inkan times, every winter solstice (June 21st).

Intiwatana: "Sun Fastener", modern name for "saywa" or solar observatory.

Jiwaya or Jiwayo: hematite, hard rock used as a hammer for carving some other softer stones.

Kacharpari: farewell party.

Kay Pacha: World's level according to Andean Religion located on the earth's surface.

Kallanka: completely roofed huge building that regularly served as lodge.

Kancha or Cancha: complex of different rooms around a central patio.

Killa or Mama Killa: "Moon" or "Mother Moon".

K'intu: offering made with three or more coca leaves.

Kiwicha or Amaranto: (Amaranthus caudatus) very rich and energetic small cereal.

...kuna: suffix denoting plural in the Quechua Language.

Kuraq Tayta: "elder father", major priest of Inkan Religion.

Kusipata: "Joy Plaza", nowadays it has the same name.

K'uychi: Rainbow, it was another Andean God.

Llama: (Lama glama) domesticated South-American cameloid.

Mallki: Inkan mummy.

Mitimaes: human groups displaced from their hometowns.

Mullu: (Spondylus sp.) marine shell representing the "mother sea", it was more valuable than any precious metal.

Ñust'a: princess.

Pachakamaq: Superior God of Peruvian Civilizations also identified as "Wiraqocha" or "Tonapa".

Pachamama: Mother Earth, deity worshipped even today.

Pago and Despacho: "Payment" and "Dispatch", offerings for divers deities, formed by organic, inorganic, manufactured elements, etc.

Panaka: Inka's extended family.

Panpamisayoq: "whom says mass on the earth", Andean Religion priest.

Paqo: "Priest" of Andean Religion. Paqos have different hierarchies.

Phaqcha: ceremonial water fountain.

Pututo: Andean trumpet made with a marine shell (Strombus galeatus).

Qamayoq or Camayoq: Quechua official in charge of care and maintenance of something; for example, "Qhipu Qamayoq": in charge of qhipus.

Qhatu: market where bartering prevails.

Qhipu or Khipu: accounting system based in multicolored strings and divers knots.

Quechua: modern name of the ancestral "Runa Simi" Andean Language.

Quinua or Quinoa: (Chenopodium quinoa), very energetic small cereal.

Qochamama: deity located in lakes or the sea.

Qollqa or Pirwa: storehouse for goods such as food, clothing, etc.

Qosqo: "navel", original name of the city in Inkan times.

Qoya: Queen, the Inka's wife.

Runa: man, common people, majority class.

Runa Simi: "man's language", native language of this corner of the world, also named "Qheswa" or "Quechua".

Sirvinakuy: modern name for the Andean Trial Marriage.

Tambo: Spanish form of "tanpu", it was a town or building offering lodge and supplies for travelers.

Tarwi: (Lupinus mutabilis), edible lupine beans that are very popular in high zones.

Tawantinsuyo: original name of the Inkan territory and society.

Tokapu: design found in textiles framed in a square; there are proofs that it was an ideo-graphic language.

Tukuyrikuq: "whom sees everything", official supervisor.

Ukhu Pacha: World's level according to Andean Religion located underground.

Urin or Uran Qosqo: lower Qosqo.

Usnu: high platform in the public plazas from which rulers or chiefs used to talk to their people.

Vicuna or Wik'uña: non domesticated South-American cameloid having the finest fiber (wool) in the world.

Waka or Guaca: temple or sanctuary.

Wakaypata: "Weeping Plaza", ancient name of the Plaza de Armas.

Wayrana: building having just three walls.

Willaq Uma: "Predicting Head", major Inkan Priest.

Willkamayu: "Sacred River", original name of the Urubamba or Vilcanota River.

Wiraqocha: invisible superior god of Peruvian civilizations also identified as "Pachacamaq" and "Tonapa".

Yakumama: (yaku = unu) "Mother Water".

Yanakuna: home servants of the Inkan society.